Episode 3: Peru (cont.)

Google Images / Peruvian Group

With the conquest and later colonial era, the Peruvian territory is influenced by Europe and later afroperuana music. One of the first European rhythms merged with the folklore of the African population was the carol The Negritos, including here the particular style of Spanish spoken by black communities.

Both the colony and during the beginning of the Republican era, people made no distinction between sacred and profane music. This differentiation was initiated very loosely around 1813, finding documents that made the difference between art music and vulgar musica. With the Republican era was born Creole music influenced by the French minuet, the waltz form Vienna, the Polish mazurka, Spanish jota, and mestizo expressions of the central coast.

The musical production in early twentieth century was very intense and composers were mostly people from neighborhoods that were characterized by a particular style for each neighborhood. At this time it is known as the Old Guard, and his compositions had no scores so they were not recorded and many of the authors were lost in anonymity. The industrial period of Creole music is accompanied by the mass of the phonograph, and the advent of the phonograph brought to Peru foreign rhythms like tango and foxtrot. These foreign rhythms eventually displaced the Creole music.

Andean Music

In Inca times, the word taki was used to refer simultaneously to both the song and the dance, as both activities were not separated from one another. In Arequipa and Southern Andes, rhythms like yaraví, a melancholic style of singing, was one of the most widespread types of singing. The Condors passes was a hymn to the sun and a traditional song composed by the Peruvian composer Daniel Alomía Robles, and it was popularized in the United States by the duo Simon & Garfunkel.

Creole Music

The coast is the most influenced by Spanish culture, because it combines traditional European rhythms like the waltz and polka with different rhythms, especially from Africa. Current Creole music emerges in late nineteenth century as part of the process of social transformation experienced by the city of Lima, visiting different states to the present. The most popular style in Lima is the Peruvian waltz. Besides the waltz, the Creole music genres include the polka and the marinera. The marinera is the national dance of Peru originated from the ancient zamacueca dance and named by the writer Abelardo Gamarra in honor of the sailors who fought against the army of Chile in the Pacific War. It has three main variants such as the Northern, the Lima and the Mountain rhythms. The group La Inedita from Lima will play some of this popular music

Finally, both hosts will be in the Peruvian capital, Lima, where young people are influenced by foreign rhythms. The rock in Peru was originated in the early ’50s as a major influence on American and British musicians for later follow different trends like alternative rock, pop, hard rock, metal, punk (the band The Saicos is considered by many national and international media as the first punk rock band in history) among other trends.

Novalima from Lima will be our last guest and they will be playing at the end of this episode from Peru.


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